AER Full Form: Types, Functions and Pathway, Download PDF: CSIR NET & SET

AER Full Form: Features of AERs

  • The agranular endoplasmic reticulum is the main intracellular storage depot for Ca2+.
  • They are found primarily in cells involved in steroid or lipid synthesis (such as the sebaceous glands and adrenal glands), carbohydrate metabolism (liver cells), stimulus conduction (muscle cells) and cells involved in pigment formation (retinal pigment cells).
  • They are also involved in the synthesis of complex fatty acids and membrane lipids, including both phospholipids and cholesterol.
  • The synthesis of steroid hormones is another aspect in which AER is involved.
  • The SERs in the liver cells are the key sites for the removal of xenobiotics (synthetic compounds not found in nature); catalyzed by the members of the cytochrome P-450 monooxygenase family present in SER as in liver cells.

RH+O2 + 2 E -à ROH + H20

Here, RH – Xenobiotic compound.

AER Full Form: IP3/DAG Pathway & Increase in Cytosolic Ca2+:

  1. The opening of the endoplasmic reticulum ca2+ Channels can be triggered by ligand binding to GPCRs encoding either Gto the or goneQ subunit.
  2. This leads to the activation of phospholipase C.
  3. Cleavage of PI(4,5)P2 by phospholipase C gives IP3 and DAG.
  4. IP3 is a water-soluble molecule that leaves the plasma membrane and rapidly diffuses through the cytosol.
  5. After diffusion through the cytosol, IP3 interacts with and opens the IP3-Gated Approx2+ Channels in the ER membrane.
  6. This releases the stored Ca2+ ions in the cytosol.
  7. The increase in cytosolic Ca2+ leads to recruitment of protein kinase C (PKC) to the plasma membrane.
  8. PKC exists as a soluble cytosolic protein that is catalytically inactive.
  9. An increase in cytosolic Ca2+ -Level causes PKC to migrate to the cytosolic flap of the plasma membrane, where it interacts with membrane-associated DAG.
  10. PKC is then activated by DAG.
  11. The activated membrane-associated kinase can phosphorylate various enzymes and receptors and thereby change their activity.
  12. In many cells, PKC phosphorylates transcription factors located in the cytosol and triggers their movement into the nucleus; where they activate the genes necessary for cell division.
  13. In liver cells, PKC regulates glycogen metabolism through phosphorylation and inhibition of glycogen synthase.

Fig.: The IP3/DAG pathway and increase in cytosolic Ca2+ ions

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