See CBSE Class 12 Economics Syllabus 2021-22. You can also download the PDF of the CBSE Class 12 Economics Syllabus 2021-22.
See CBSE Class 12 Economics Syllabus 2021-22. You can also download the PDF of the CBSE Class 12 Economics Syllabus 2021-22. Link to download the PDF of CBSE Class 12 Economics
The 2021-22 syllabus is at the end of this article. Students preparing for the CBSE 12th Economics Board exam 2021 are encouraged to study this curriculum thoroughly and plan their studies accordingly.
CBSE Class 12 Syllabus 2021-22 (new) published for the CBSE Academic Session 2021-2022: Download topic-related PDF!
CBSE Grade 12 Business Curriculum 2021-22:
Theory: 80 marks, project: 20 marks
Part A: Introduction to Macroeconomics
Unit 1: National income and associated aggregates
What is Macroeconomics?
Basic concepts of macroeconomics: consumer goods, capital goods, end goods, intermediate goods; Stocks and flows; Gross Investments and Depreciation.
Cycle of income (two-sector model); Methods of calculating national income – value creation or product method, expenditure method, income method.
Aggregates related to national income:
Gross National Product (GNP), Net National Product (NNP), Gross Domestic Product (GDP) and Net Domestic Product (NDP) – at market prices, at factor cost; Real and nominal GDP, GDP deflator.
GDP and Welfare
Unit 2: Money and Banking
Money – meaning and supply of money – currency of the public and net sight deposits of commercial banks.
Money creation through the commercial banking system.
Central bank and its functions (example Reserve Bank of India): Bank of Issue, Govt. Bank, bank, credit control by bank rate, CRR, SLR, repo rate and reverse repo rate, open market operations, margin requirement
Unit 3: Income and Employment Assessment
Total demand and its components.
Propensity to consume and propensity to save (average and marginal). Short-term equilibrium performance; Investment multiplier and its mechanism. Importance of full employment and involuntary unemployment.
Problems of excess demand and lack of demand; Measures to correct them – changes in government spending, taxes and the money supply.
Unit 4: State Budget and Economy
State budget – meaning, goals and components.
Classification of Income – Income Income and Capital Income; Classification of expenditure – income expenditure and capital expenditure.
Government deficit measures – revenue deficit, budget deficit, primary deficit their importance.
Unit 5: Balance of Payments
Balance of payments account – meaning and components; Balance of payments deficit – Importance.
Foreign exchange rate – the importance of fixed and flexible rates and managed floating. Determination of the exchange rate in a free market.
Part B: Indian Economic Development
Unit 6: Development experience (1947-90) and economic reforms since 1991:
A brief introduction to the state of the Indian economy on the eve of independence. Indian economic system and common goals of the five-year plans.
Main features, problems and policies of agriculture (institutional aspects and new agricultural strategy), industry (IPR 1956; SSI – role & importance) and foreign trade.
Economic reforms since 1991:
Characteristics and evaluations of liberalization, globalization and privatization (LPG policy); Concepts of demonetization and GST
Unit 7: Current challenges for the Indian economy
Poverty – absolute and relative; Main Poverty Reduction Programs: A Critical Assessment;
Human Capital Formation: How People Become Resources; Role of human capital in economic development; Education Sector Growth in India
Rural Development: Key Issues – Credit and Marketing – Role of Cooperatives; agricultural diversification; Alternative agriculture – organic farming
Employment: growth and changes in the employment rate in the formal and informal sectors; Problems and politics
Infrastructure: meaning and types: case studies: energy and health: problems and
Guidelines – A Critical Assessment;
Sustainable economic development: importance, effects of economic development on
Resources and the environment, including global warming
Unit 8: Development Experience in India:
A comparison with neighbors
India and Pakistan
India and China
Topics: economic growth, population, sectoral development and other human
Part C: Project in Economics (20 periods)
1. Statistics for Economics, NCERT
2. Indian Economic Development, NCERT
3. Introduction to Microeconomics, NCERT
4. Macroeconomics, NCERT
5. Complementary reading in Economics, CBSE
Note: The above publications are also available in Hindi Medium.
Download CBSE Class 12 Economics Syllabus 2021-22 PDF
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